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A pond barrow and a bowl barrow 200m south east of St Mary's Church forming outliers to a round barrow cemetery at Winterbourne Gunner

A Scheduled Monument in Winterbourne, Wiltshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.116 / 51°6'57"N

Longitude: -1.7404 / 1°44'25"W

OS Eastings: 418269.259104

OS Northings: 135221.853849

OS Grid: SU182352

Mapcode National: GBR 50Q.YM3

Mapcode Global: VHB5R.S69T

Entry Name: A pond barrow and a bowl barrow 200m south east of St Mary's Church forming outliers to a round barrow cemetery at Winterbourne Gunner

Scheduled Date: 1 July 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1010293

English Heritage Legacy ID: 26264

County: Wiltshire

Civil Parish: Winterbourne

Built-Up Area: Winterbourne Gunner

Traditional County: Wiltshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Wiltshire

Church of England Parish: Winterbourne Gunner St Mary

Church of England Diocese: Salisbury

Details

The monument includes the remains of a pond barrow and a bowl barrow located
200m south east of St Mary's Church in Winterbourne Gunner. The barrows are
two of at least six which form outliers to a round barrow cemetery located
400m to the north east. The core of the cemetery contains seven bowl barrows.
The central depression of the pond barrow is c.0.6m deep and 12m in diameter
and was originally surrounded by a bank constructed from the excavation of the
central depression. The bank has become levelled over the years but its extent
is indicated by the discovery during partial excavation of a secondary,
crouched burial on its south western side and of two secondary cremations
contained within urns on its north eastern side. The width of the outer bank
is therefore c.3m giving an overall diameter for the pond barrow of 18m.
Partial excavation also revealed the presence of a cremation pit in the
central depression.
Pits are located in the area of the bank and immediately south east of the
pond barrow. Five have been identified during fieldwork. Of these, two are
physically associated and, therefore, form part of the scheduling. The other
three pits are not physically associated and are not included in the
scheduling.
The remains of a bowl barrow lie 3m ENE of the pond barrow. The barrow mound
has been largely levelled, but partial excavation has shown that it was
surrounded by a ditch up to 1m wide, from which material was quarried during
its construction. This ditch has become largely infilled over the years but
survives as a buried feature, giving the barrow an overall diameter of 22m.
An Anglo-Saxon inhumation cemetery is located to the south east and the south
west of the monument.
A wooden shed partially located on the south western side of the bowl barrow
is excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath it is included. All
fence posts are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath these
features is included.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC). They comprise
closely-spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows - rubble or earthen mounds
covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries developed over a
considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in some cases acted as
a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period. They exhibit
considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently including
several different types of round barrow, occasionally associated with earlier
long barrows. Where large scale investigation has been undertaken around them,
contemporary or later "flat" burials between the barrow mounds have often been
revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland Britain, with a
marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases, they are clustered around other
important contemporary monuments such as henges. Often occupying prominent
locations, they are a major historic element in the modern landscape, whilst
their diversity and their longevity as a monument type provide important
information on the variety of beliefs and social organisation amongst early
prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period
and a substantial proportion of surviving or partly-surviving examples are
considered worthy of protection.

Pond barrows are ceremonial or funerary monuments of the Early to Middle
Bronze Age, most examples dating to between 1500 and 1000 BC. The term
"barrow" is something of a misnomer as, rather than a mound, they were
constructed as regular circular depressions with an embanked rim and
occasionally, an outer ditch or entrance through the bank. Where excavation
has occurred, single or multiple pits or cists occasionally containing human
remains, have usually been discovered within the central depression. Pond
barrows occur either singly or, more frequently, within round barrow
cemeteries. The function and role of pond barrows is not fully understood but
their close association with other types of barrow and the limited but
repeated occurrence of human remains from excavated examples supports their
identification as ceremonial monuments involved in funerary ritual. Pond
barrows are the rarest form of round barrow with about 60 examples recorded
nationally and a distribution largely confined to Wiltshire and Dorset. They
are representative of their period and, as few examples have been excavated,
they have a particularly high value for future study with the potential to
provide important evidence on the nature and variety of beliefs amongst
prehistoric communities. Due to their rarity, all identified pond barrows
would normally be considered to be of national importance.
Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments
dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most
examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC. They were constructed as
earthen or rubble mounds, sometimes ditched, which covered single or multiple
burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as cemeteries and often
acted as a focus for burials in later periods. Often superficially similar,
although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form
and a diversity of burial practices. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl
barrows recorded nationally (many more have already been destroyed), occurring
across most of lowland Britain. They are particularly representative of their
period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered
worthy of protection.
Despite the reduced height of the bank of the pond barrow and the mound of the
bowl barrow, the two barrows form an important and integral part of the nearby
round barrow cemetery, and are known from partial excavation to contain
archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the monument and
the landscape in which it was constructed.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
Ref 1,

Source: Historic England

Other nearby scheduled monuments

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