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Fulbeck village cross

A Scheduled Monument in Fulbeck, Lincolnshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.0423 / 53°2'32"N

Longitude: -0.5878 / 0°35'16"W

OS Eastings: 494774.483943

OS Northings: 350377.547316

OS Grid: SK947503

Mapcode National: GBR DNN.85X

Mapcode Global: WHGJX.YS7L

Entry Name: Fulbeck village cross

Scheduled Date: 12 October 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1009223

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22629

County: Lincolnshire

Civil Parish: Fulbeck

Built-Up Area: Fulbeck

Traditional County: Lincolnshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Lincolnshire

Church of England Parish: Fulbeck St Nicholas

Church of England Diocese: Lincoln

Details

The monument includes Fulbeck village cross, a standing stone cross of
medieval and later date. The cross, which stands in a green to the south east
of the parish church, is of stepped form with a shaft and cross-shaped head.
The monument includes the base, composed of three steps and a socket-stone,
all of which are principally medieval in date; it also includes the shaft and
head, which date from a late 19th-century restoration.
The steps are roughly square in plan and are constructed of limestone blocks
which have been partially restored. On the top step stands the socket-stone,
composed of two chamfered, rectangular slabs. The upper slab tapers slightly,
and there are four small holes in the upper face. Set into the centre of the
socket-stone is the cross-shaft, which tapers upwards from a base of
rectangular section with chamfered corners. Above it is a knop and an
ornamented, cross-shaped head. The shaft and cross-head were added to the
medieval steps and socket-stone in the later 19th century to a design by
Edward Trollope. The full height of the cross is nearly 5m.
This cross is Listed Grade II.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Fulbeck village cross is a good example of a medieval standing cross with a
stepped base. Situated on the village green, it is believed to stand in or
near its original position. Minimal disturbance of the area immediately
surrounding the cross indicates that archaeological deposits relating to the
monument's construction and use are likely to survive intact. While parts of
the cross have survived since medieval times, subsequent restoration has
resulted in its continued use as a public monument and amenity.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Davies, D S, 'Lincolnshire Notes and Queries' in Ancient Stone Crosses in Kesteven, , Vol. XII no.5, (1913), 141
Other
St. Nicholas' Church, Fulbeck, Lincolnshire, church guide current 1993

Source: Historic England

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