Ancient Monuments

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Churchyard cross, St Michael's churchyard

A Scheduled Monument in Edenham, Lincolnshire

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Latitude: 52.7834 / 52°47'0"N

Longitude: -0.4269 / 0°25'36"W

OS Eastings: 506194.312557

OS Northings: 321804.24981

OS Grid: TF061218

Mapcode National: GBR FT9.DX0

Mapcode Global: WHGLC.D9YJ

Entry Name: Churchyard cross, St Michael's churchyard

Scheduled Date: 5 October 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1009202

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22646

County: Lincolnshire

Civil Parish: Edenham

Traditional County: Lincolnshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Lincolnshire

Church of England Parish: Edenham St Michael

Church of England Diocese: Lincoln


The monument includes a Grade II Listed standing stone cross located in the
churchyard of St Michael's Church, Edenham, approximately 12m south west of
the tower. The cross is of stepped form and is medieval in date with late
19th-/early 20th-century repairs. The monument includes the base, comprising
two steps and a socket-stone, and a fragment of the shaft.

The base includes two steps constructed of large rectangular blocks of
limestone around a loose rubble core. The lower step is approximately 2m
square and the upper 1.3m square; both are over 0.3m in height. On the upper
step rests the socket-stone, a single limestone slab of rectangular section,
0.52m x 0.6m, with slightly chamfered lower corners and a narrow groove
running under the upper edge. It reaches a maximum height of 0.34m. Into the
socket-stone is set the medieval shaft fragment, of plain rectangular section
within the socket and tapering upwards in octagonal section above. It is fixed
to the socket-stone with large iron clamps which represent repairs made in the
late 19th/early 20th century. The shaft fragment stands to a height of 0.83m
above the socket-stone; at the top are further iron clamps fixing the stone to
the remains of a wooden block. The full height of the cross is approximately

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The churchyard cross at Edenham is a good example of the remains of a medieval
standing cross with a stepped base. Situated to the south west of the tower,
it is believed to stand in or near its original position. Limited disturbance
of the area immediately surrounding the cross indicates that archaeological
deposits relating to the monument's construction and use in this location are
likely to survive intact. The cross has continued in use as a public monument
and amenity from medieval times to the present day.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Stukeley, W, Itinerarium Curiosum, I, (1724), 10
Davies, D S, 'Lincolnshire Notes and Queries' in Ancient Stone Crosses in Kesteven, , Vol. XII no.5, (1913), 140

Source: Historic England

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