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Romano-British farmstead, 330m north west of Sidwood Cottage

A Scheduled Monument in Tarset, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.197 / 55°11'49"N

Longitude: -2.3584 / 2°21'30"W

OS Eastings: 377284.955368

OS Northings: 589248.002077

OS Grid: NY772892

Mapcode National: GBR C8ZB.6V

Mapcode Global: WH8ZY.RM5S

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead, 330m north west of Sidwood Cottage

Scheduled Date: 19 March 1965

Last Amended: 3 September 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008989

English Heritage Legacy ID: 25075

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Tarset

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Falstone with Greystead and Thorneyburn

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes the remains of a farmstead of Romano-British date
situated on a north east slope commanding the Tarset Valley. The farmstead,
sub-rectangular in shape, measures a maximum of 34m north west to south east
by 32m north east to south west within a single rampart of stone and earth.
The rampart is a maximum of 5m wide and stands to a height of 0.6m above the
exterior ground level. An entrance 5m wide is visible in the eastern wall.
The interior of the settlement is divided into two areas: an upper western
half which contains the remains of three circular stone founded houses and a
lower eastern half which contains the depressions of two scooped yards, 1.5m
deep, placed either side of the entrance. All of the circular houses have
clear entrances in their eastern sides and they measure 8m, 7m and 5.5m in
diameter. A further round house is visible tucked into the outside of the bank
on the northern side of the enclosure; this indicates that the settlement
expanded beyond its original walls.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

The farmstead 330m north west of Sidwood Cottage is very well-preserved and
retains significant archaeological deposits. It is one of a group of similar
Romano-British settlements in the area and will contribute to any study of the
settlement pattern at this time.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hogg, A H A, 'Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 4 ser 11' in Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 4 ser 11, (1947), 168
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 38' in Rectlinear Settlements of the Roman Period in Northumberland, (1960), 36
Other
NY 78 NE 01,

Source: Historic England

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