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Romano-British farmstead, 650m west of High Cowden Cottage

A Scheduled Monument in Chollerton, Northumberland

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.1084 / 55°6'30"N

Longitude: -2.139 / 2°8'20"W

OS Eastings: 391230.896746

OS Northings: 579344.97947

OS Grid: NY912793

Mapcode National: GBR F9HC.QK

Mapcode Global: WHB1L.3VQP

Entry Name: Romano-British farmstead, 650m west of High Cowden Cottage

Scheduled Date: 28 August 1962

Last Amended: 8 August 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008665

English Heritage Legacy ID: 20967

County: Northumberland

Civil Parish: Chollerton

Traditional County: Northumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Northumberland

Church of England Parish: Birtley St Giles

Church of England Diocese: Newcastle

Details

The monument includes a farmstead of Romano-British date situated on the
summit of a gently sloping hill. The rectangular farmstead measures a maximum
of 50m north east to south west by 45m north west to south east within a broad
ditch 5m across. There are traces of a counter-scarp bank outside of the
ditch, best preserved on the western side of the enclosure. The eastern side
of the enclosure is now much denuded but can be traced as a slight ditch 4m
across.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.

This farmstead is well-preserved. It is one of a group of similar settlements
in this area and will contribute to study of the wider settlement pattern at
this time.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
Hogg, A H A, 'Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 4 ser 11' in Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 4 ser 11, (1947)
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 38' in Rectlinear Settlements of the Roman Period in Northumberland, (1960)
Other
5422,

Source: Historic England

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