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Five bowl barrows 300m north of Chalk Hill Cottage; part of the Cow Common round barrow cemetery

A Scheduled Monument in Temple Guiting, Gloucestershire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.9354 / 51°56'7"N

Longitude: -1.81 / 1°48'36"W

OS Eastings: 413156.192581

OS Northings: 226337.564734

OS Grid: SP131263

Mapcode National: GBR 4PR.R5Q

Mapcode Global: VHB1N.KMZ5

Entry Name: Five bowl barrows 300m north of Chalk Hill Cottage; part of the Cow Common round barrow cemetery

Scheduled Date: 25 March 1948

Last Amended: 12 April 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1008193

English Heritage Legacy ID: 22878

County: Gloucestershire

Civil Parish: Temple Guiting

Traditional County: Gloucestershire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Gloucestershire

Church of England Parish: The Swells

Church of England Diocese: Gloucester

Details

The monument includes a line of five bowl barrows forming part of a wider
round barrow cemetery. The barrows are aligned broadly north-south and are
situated 300m north of Chalk Hill Cottage on Cow Common, a gently sloping
plateau with views to the south and east in the area of the Cotswold Hills.
The five bowl barrows include four examples which survive as upstanding
earthworks under grass, and one to the north which is under cultivation and
which has been partially spread and reduced from its original height.
The most southerly barrow (SP 1315 2632) has a mound composed of small stones
with a maximum diameter of 21m and a maximum height of c.1m. This mound
survives under grass as an earthwork 10.5m in diameter; the outer periphery
has been reduced in height by cultivation, although it survives as a stony
rise c.0.3m high.
The barrow was partially excavated by William Greenwell in 1874. This revealed
that the mound was capped by oolitic slabs and that a central stone lined
grave was cut into the rock and contained a crouched inhumation of an adult
male. Two secondary interments were also found within the mound. The lowest
deposit consisted of the cremation of an adult which was contained within a
Middle-Late Bronze Age urn along with a bronze razor. The interment was
underneath a slab, above which was another adult cremation contained within a
Late Bronze Age basket urn.
The remaining four barrows, from north-south are described as follows:
(SP 1316 2633): This bowl barrow has a mound with a diameter of 13m and a
maximum height of c.1.1m. The mound has a central depression which marks the
location of the partial excavations conducted at the site by William Greenwell
in 1874. These revealed that the mound contained an unusual beehive shaped
chamber which was sunk into the ground and associated with a passage extending
WNW.
When investigated by H E O`Neil in 1934, the chamber was thought to represent
a Neolithic structure. The chamber was found to contain intrusive material
including a horseshoe and a clay pipe, suggesting it was reused as a
shelter in the medieval or post-medieval period.
(SP 1315 2634): This barrow has a mound composed of small stones with a
maximum diameter of 18.3m from east-west and a maximum height of c.1.2m. The
mound survives under grass as an earthwork 10m wide with an outer margin
having been reduced in height by cultivation and surviving as a rise of
c.0.3m.
The barrow was partially excavated by William Greenwell in 1874 and a central
primary cremation of an infant with a bone pin was discovered, surrounded by
the burnt remains of a funerary pyre. A secondary cremation of an adult female
surrounded by small flagstones was found 3.2m WNW of the centre of the mound.
(SP 1315 2635): This barrow has a mound composed of stone slabs with maximum
dimensions of 19m from east-west. The mound survives under grass as an
upstanding earthwork with a diameter of 9.3m from east-west. The outer
periphery has been reduced in height by cultivation, but remains visible as a
slight rise c.0.3m high.
The barrow was partially excavated by William Greenwell in 1874 and a central
primary cremation was discovered, although in this case there was no sign of a
funerary pyre.
The most northerly bowl barrow (SP 1317 2636), has a mound composed of small
stones which has been spread by ploughing. This has an overall diameter of
14.5m and has a maximum height of c.0.35m.
The barrow was partially excavated by Greenwell in 1874 and a primary
cremation of an adult, probably a male, was discovered. This was associated
with an unburnt bone pin which may have been used to contain the burial within
a pouch or hide.
Surrounding all five mounds are ditches from which material was quarried
during their construction. Although these have become infilled over the years,
they survive as buried features c.2m wide, which converge on all but the outer
edges of the monument.

MAP EXTRACT
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC). They comprise
closely-spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows - rubble or earthen mounds
covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries developed over a
considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in some cases acted as
a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period. They exhibit
considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently including
several different types of round barrow, occasionally associated with earlier
long barrows. Where large scale investigation has been undertaken around them,
contemporary or later "flat" burials between the barrow mounds have often been
revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland Britain, with a
marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases, they are clustered around other
important contemporary monuments such as henges. Often occupying prominent
locations, they are a major historic element in the modern landscape, whilst
their diversity and their longevity as a monument type provide important
information on the variety of beliefs and social organisation amongst early
prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period
and a substantial proportion of surviving or partly-surviving examples are
considered worthy of protection.

Despite partial excavation, the five bowl barrows 300m north of Chalk Hill
Cottage survive comparatively well as the core of a round barrow cemetery
and are known to contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to
the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Books and journals
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 131
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
O`Neil, H E, Grinsell, L V, 'Proc of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch Soc' in Gloucestershire Barrows, , Vol. 179, (1960), 132
Other
Mention of Greenwell record no. 216,
Mention of Greenwell reference 219,
Mention of Greenwell`s ref no. 217,
Mention of Greenwell`s reference 218,
Reference to Greenwell`s number 220,

Source: Historic England

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