Ancient Monuments

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Hengi-form monument at Red Hill

A Scheduled Monument in Cobham and Downside, Surrey

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Latitude: 51.3253 / 51°19'30"N

Longitude: -0.4442 / 0°26'39"W

OS Eastings: 508500.871075

OS Northings: 159612.203015

OS Grid: TQ085596

Mapcode National: GBR 38.6PH

Mapcode Global: VHFV4.8Y0F

Entry Name: Hengi-form monument at Red Hill

Scheduled Date: 30 January 1980

Last Amended: 15 April 1994

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007905

English Heritage Legacy ID: 23005

County: Surrey

Electoral Ward/Division: Cobham and Downside

Traditional County: Surrey

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Surrey


The monument includes an oval enclosure, 40m long by 35m across, identified as
a hengi-form monument, situated on the crest of a rise in an area of
undulating Greensand.
The enclosure has a flat interior, which is slightly lower than the
surrounding ground level, 19m long and 15m wide and defined by a bank and
inner ditch. The ditch, although partially infilled, survives 5m wide and 0.5m
deep while the bank is 4.5m wide and up to 0.5m high. The entrance to the
enclosure, situated in the north-eastern quadrant, is no longer visible as
this area has been disturbed by later quarrying activity.
Remote sensing surveys carried out since the 1970s have located a number of
anomalies in the interior of the enclosure which have been interpreted as
possible graves.

The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features,
considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Hengi-form monuments are ritual or ceremonial centres closely connected with
burial and dating to the Middle and Late Neolithic periods (3000-2000 BC).
They were constructed as flat, roughly circular enclosures comprising an area
of ground typically between 5m and 20m across enclosed by a ditch with
external bank. One entrance or two opposing entrances through the earthwork
provided access to the interior of the monument which often contained pits,
cremation pits, postholes and graves. Cremation pits and postholes were often
present around the perimeter of the site. They are distinguished from standard
henges by their small size and their more specific association with burial.
Finds from the ditches and interiors of hengi-form monuments provide important
evidence for the chronological development of the sites, the types of activity
that occurred within them and the nature of the environment in which they were
constructed. Most examples are situated on gravel terraces or on hill slopes.
They sometimes occur in pairs or groups of three in close proximity. Hengi-
form monuments are very rare nationally with only 24 examples known, although
this is likely to be an underestimate in view of the difficulties in
recognition. As one of the few types of identified Neolithic structures and in
view of their rarity, all hengi-form monuments are considered to be of
national importance.

Despite some disturbance caused by quarrying, the hengi-form monument at Red
Hill survives comparatively well. It is the only known example of its type in
Surrey and contains archaeological and environmental evidence relating to the
monument, its use and the landscape in which it was constructed.

Source: Historic England


Dyer, S P, 3309, (1991)

Source: Historic England

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