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Scalesceugh Roman kilns

A Scheduled Monument in St Cuthbert Without, Cumbria

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Coordinates

Latitude: 54.8378 / 54°50'16"N

Longitude: -2.86 / 2°51'35"W

OS Eastings: 344863.75866

OS Northings: 549558.906122

OS Grid: NY448495

Mapcode National: GBR 8DGH.MK

Mapcode Global: WH80B.1NDM

Entry Name: Scalesceugh Roman kilns

Scheduled Date: 11 January 1972

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1007181

English Heritage Legacy ID: CU 280

County: Cumbria

Civil Parish: St Cuthbert Without

Traditional County: Cumberland

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cumbria

Church of England Parish: Wreay St Mary

Church of England Diocese: Carlisle

Summary

Roman Pottery and Tile Kilns, 145m north west and immediately NNW of Scalesceugh Lodge.

Source: Historic England

Details

This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 23 March 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

The monument includes the remains of a series of pottery and tile kilns of Roman date, situated in two areas of protection on a south facing slope and adjacent to the River Petteril. The monument has been partially excavated in 1915-16 and 1970-1 revealing large quantities of charcoal, inscribed tiles of the 9th and 20th Legions as well as the buried remains of a pottery kiln infilled in the Roman period. The kiln had a paved and cobbled floor and the foundations of a substantial enclosure wall as found nearby. A geophysical survey has revealed that the monument contains at least 42 kilns or hearths spread along the presumed route of a Roman road, which runs through the scheduled area.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Roman pottery production in Britain started soon after the Roman conquest c.AD 40-50 and continued into the fifth century. The peak of production was during the second century AD, after which the number of production centres began to diminish. Pottery made in Britain was supplemented by a wide range of ceramics imported into Britain from elsewhere in the Roman Empire. Early examples of Roman potteries are concentrated in the south and east, principally in the Nene Valley and Kent areas. In the second century potteries became more widespread, with rare northern examples being restricted to sites with military associations. In the third and fourth centuries the main focus for pottery production was along the navigable rivers of the central southern and south and east of the country. By the end of the fourth century production was restricted to parts of North Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and limited areas of the south east. All of the nearly 400 known potteries in England are located with ready access to markets, and all are situated close to necessary raw materials such as suitable clay, water and fuel. Potteries are often found in clusters, in both urban and rural areas. Although there was some variation throughout the country, all Roman potteries broadly included the same elements: kiln drying chambers and associated structures such as worksheds, preparation floors, stores and sometimes accommodation for the workforce. Some potteries had fewer than five kilns, others upwards of 35. The pottery site may also be situated within a larger industrial complex which accommodated other crafts with similar technological needs, such as iron smelting. Roman pottery making sites in Britain provide important information about the technology of pottery manufacture and its development and, more generally, the economic structure of the Roman province. They also offer scope for understanding trade patterns and how they related to the political and military situation. Roman pottery sites are rare nationally and all examples which are known to survive in good condition and still retain most of their components are considered to be of national importance.

The Roman Pottery and Tile Kilns 145m north west and immediately NNW of Scalesceugh Lodge are preserved as buried remains. Excavation has indicated that substantial parts of the kilns and associated structures remains intact including kiln floors and wall foundations and further deposits will be preserved relating to the construction, use and abandonment of the monument. The monument provides insight into Roman pottery and tile production and into the changes in manufacture, trade and economy that occurred during the period.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
PastScape Monument No:- 11340

Source: Historic England

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