Ancient Monuments

History on the Ground

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Wayside cross 160m south of Trevease Farm

A Scheduled Monument in Constantine, Cornwall

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Latitude: 50.1399 / 50°8'23"N

Longitude: -5.1909 / 5°11'27"W

OS Eastings: 172090.581623

OS Northings: 31518.046179

OS Grid: SW720315

Mapcode National: GBR Z6.77K3

Mapcode Global: FRA 080N.9HC

Entry Name: Wayside cross 160m south of Trevease Farm

Scheduled Date: 22 March 1932

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1006653

English Heritage Legacy ID: CO 166

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: Constantine

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: Constantine

Church of England Diocese: Truro


The monument includes a wayside cross, situated in a valley beside a tributary to the Helford River. The cross survives as a decorated wheel-head on a rectangular shaft set into its original base. The cross measures up to 1.5m high. The front face is decorated with a patriarchal cross, having two sets of side limbs with the figure of Christ with arms outstretched resting on the upper pair. On the rear of the head is a Latin cross in relief. The cross appears to be in its original position and marks the footpath leading from Trevease to Trengrove at the point where there was a natural ford.

Sources: HER:-
PastScape Monument No:-427747

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes which might have a more specifically religious function, including providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions. Wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration but several regional types have been identified. The Cornish wayside crosses form one such group. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross were carved. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ. Less common forms include the `Latin' cross, where the cross-head itself is shaped within the arms of an unenclosed cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low-relief cross on both faces. Over 400 crosses of all types are recorded in Cornwall. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval routeways, settlement patterns and the development of sculptural traditions and their survival is somewhat differential because of periods of religious turbulence during the Reformation when many were subject to damage or partial destruction by iconoclasts. The wayside cross 160m south of Trevease Farm is a well-preserved example which appears to be in its original location. It has a type of decoration which is extremely rare in Cornwall. The cross will have archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its erection, history during times of religious turbulence and overall landscape context. It is a rare survival.

Source: Historic England

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