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Wadeford Roman villa

A Scheduled Monument in Combe St Nicholas, Somerset

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.89 / 50°53'23"N

Longitude: -2.984 / 2°59'2"W

OS Eastings: 330885.458006

OS Northings: 110515.845774

OS Grid: ST308105

Mapcode National: GBR M6.S7TH

Mapcode Global: FRA 46MR.C9L

Entry Name: Wadeford Roman villa

Scheduled Date: 11 November 1954

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1006187

English Heritage Legacy ID: SO 281

County: Somerset

Civil Parish: Combe St Nicholas

Built-Up Area: Wadeford

Traditional County: Somerset

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Somerset

Church of England Parish: Combe St Nicholas

Church of England Diocese: Bath and Wells

Summary

Minor Romano British villa 145m north of Wadeford House.

Source: Historic England

Details

This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 17 August 2015. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

This monument includes a minor Romano British villa situated close to the valley floor of a small un-named river running through the settlement of Wadeford. The villa survives as predominantly buried structures, deposits and layers with low banks visible as surface features. This large villa of the type based around a central courtyard was partially excavated in 1810 and 1861. Seven mosaic pavements, hypocaust tiles, painted wall plaster, significant quantities of pottery, some Roman coins and a Bronze Age spearhead were located. The walls were built of mortared stone and survived well. It is known locally as ‘Wadeford Roman Villa’. The evidence suggested a 3rd century AD date for occupation.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Romano-British villas were extensive rural estates with groups of domestic, agricultural and occasionally industrial buildings at the focus. The term "villa" is now commonly used to describe either the estate or the buildings themselves. The buildings usually include a well-appointed dwelling house, the design of which varies considerably according to the needs, taste and prosperity of the occupier. Most of the houses were partly or wholly stone-built, many with a timber-framed superstructure on masonry footings. Roofs were generally tiled and the house could feature tiled or mosaic floors, under-floor heating, wall plaster, glazed windows and cellars. Many had integral or separate suites of heated baths. The house was usually accompanied by a range of buildings providing accommodation for farm labourers, workshops and storage for agricultural produce. These were arranged around or alongside a courtyard and were surrounded by a complex of paddocks, pens, yards and features such as vegetable plots, granaries, threshing floors, wells and hearths, all approached by tracks leading from the surrounding fields. Villa buildings were constructed throughout the period of Roman occupation, from the first to the fourth centuries AD. They are usually complex structures occupied over several hundred years and continually remodelled to fit changing circumstances. They could serve a wide variety of uses alongside agricultural activities, including administrative, recreational and craft functions, and this is reflected in the considerable diversity in their plan. The least elaborate villas served as simple farmhouses whilst, for the most complex, the term "palace" is not inappropriate. Villa owners tended to be drawn from a limited elite section of Romano-British society. Although some villas belonged to immigrant Roman officials or entrepreneurs, the majority seem to have been in the hands of wealthy natives with a more-or-less Romanised lifestyle, and some were built directly on the sites of Iron Age farmsteads. Roman villa buildings are widespread, with between 400 and 1000 examples recorded nationally. The majority of these are classified as `minor' villas. Minor villas are found throughout lowland Britain and occasionally beyond. Roman villas provide a valuable index of the rate, extent and degree to which native British society became Romanised, as well as indicating the sources of inspiration behind changes of taste and custom. In addition, they serve to illustrate the agrarian and economic history of the Roman province, allowing comparisons over wide areas both within and beyond Britain. Despite early partial excavation the minor Romano British villa 145m north of Wadeford House will contain further archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its construction, development, longevity, social, political and economic significance, agricultural practices, trade, industrial activity, domestic arrangements, abandonment and overall landscape context.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
PastScape Monument No:-191803

Source: Historic England

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