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Animal pound 390m south of Croft Pascoe Pool

A Scheduled Monument in St. Keverne, Cornwall

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.0315 / 50°1'53"N

Longitude: -5.1697 / 5°10'11"W

OS Eastings: 173092.130153

OS Northings: 19404.996187

OS Grid: SW730194

Mapcode National: GBR Z7.S157

Mapcode Global: FRA 081X.RRP

Entry Name: Animal pound 390m south of Croft Pascoe Pool

Scheduled Date: 2 July 1959

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1004622

English Heritage Legacy ID: CO 567

County: Cornwall

Civil Parish: St. Keverne

Traditional County: Cornwall

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Cornwall

Church of England Parish: St Keverne

Church of England Diocese: Truro

Details

The monument includes an animal pound, situated close to the centre of Goonhilly Downs. The animal pound survives as a rectangular enclosed area measuring 37m long by 33m wide. It is defined by 0.6m high bank and a partially buried 0.3m deep outer ditch. There are breaks in the bank on the south east and south west sides.

Sources: HER:-
PastScape Monument No:-426599

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The term animal pound is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word `pund' meaning enclosure, and is used to describe stock-proof areas for confining stray or illegally pastured stock and legally-kept animals rounded up at certain times of the year from areas of common grazing. The earliest documentary references to pounds date from the 12th century and they continued to be constructed and used throughout the medieval and post-medieval periods. Most surviving examples are likely to be less than three centuries old, and most will have fallen into disuse in the late 19th or early 20th century. Animal pounds are usually located in villages or towns though some lie in more open locations, particularly on the edge of old woodlands and commons. Construction methods vary according to the availability of building materials: stone, brick, fencing, iron railings and earthworks being used to enclose areas ranging from 4m by 6m to over 0.5ha. The walls are normally about 1.5m high, although greater heights are not uncommon as attempts to prevent poundbreach. In addition to stock control, animals were sometimes taken as a `distress' (seizure of property in lieu of debt or to enforce payment) and kept under the care of the pinder or hayward until redeemed. Pounds are usually unroofed and have a single entrance, although some have additional low entrances to allow the passage of sheep and pigs while retaining larger stock. Other features include rudimentary shelters for the pound-keeper, laid floors, drainage channels, troughs and internal partitions to separate the beasts. Animal pounds are widely distributed throughout England, with particular concentrations in the west and Midlands. About 250 examples are known to survive in fair condition, with perhaps another 150 examples recorded either as remains, or from documentary evidence alone. Pounds illustrate a specialised aspect of past social organisation and animal husbandry, and reflect the use and former appearance of the surrounding landscape.

Despite reduction in the height of the earthworks through past cultivation, the animal pound 390m south of Croft Pascoe Pool survives well and will contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its construction, date, longevity, function, re-use, agricultural practices, social and economic significance and overall landscape context.

Source: Historic England

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