Ancient Monuments

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Church Bottom earthwork enclosure

A Scheduled Monument in Ebbesborne Wake, Wiltshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.0254 / 51°1'31"N

Longitude: -2.0131 / 2°0'47"W

OS Eastings: 399178.956692

OS Northings: 125111.634643

OS Grid: ST991251

Mapcode National: GBR 2YW.MVN

Mapcode Global: FRA 66ND.RK6

Entry Name: Church Bottom earthwork enclosure

Scheduled Date: 14 January 1929

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1003743

English Heritage Legacy ID: WI 221

County: Wiltshire

Civil Parish: Ebbesborne Wake

Traditional County: Wiltshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Wiltshire

Church of England Parish: Ebbesbourne Wake with Fifield Bavant and Alvediston St John the Baptist

Church of England Diocese: Salisbury

Summary

Animal pound 620m south-west of North Barn.

Source: Historic England

Details

This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 1 July 2015. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records. As such they do not yet have the full descriptions of their modernised counterparts available. Please contact us if you would like further information.

This monument includes an animal pound situated in the base of a steeply sided dry valley called Church Bottom. The animal pound survives as a rectangular enclosure defined by a single bank standing from 0.8m up to 1.5m high and an outer ditch of up to 0.3m deep. The combined width of the bank and ditch is some 4m. The enclosure measures 71m long by 36m wide internally and has an entrance at the south western corner.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Cranborne Chase is an area of chalkland well known for its high number, density and diversity of archaeological remains. These include a rare combination of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age sites, comprising one of the largest concentrations of burial monuments in England, the largest known cursus (a linear ritual monument) and a significant number and range of henge monuments (Late Neolithic ceremonial centres). Other important remains include a variety of enclosures, settlements, field systems and linear boundaries which date throughout prehistory and into the Romano-British and medieval periods. This high level of survival of archaeological remains is due largely to the later history of the Chase. Cranborne Chase formed a Royal Hunting Ground from at least Norman times, and much of the archaeological survival within the area resulted from associated laws controlling land-use which applied until 1830. The unique archaeological character of the Chase has attracted much attention over the years, notably during the later 19th century, by the pioneering work on the Chase of General Pitt-Rivers, Sir Richard Colt Hoare and Edward Cunnington, often regarded as the fathers of British archaeology. Archaeological investigations have continued throughout the 20th century and to the present day. The term animal pound is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word `pund' meaning enclosure, and is used to describe stock-proof areas for confining stray or illegally pastured stock and legally-kept animals rounded up at certain times of the year from areas of common grazing. The earliest documentary references to pounds date from the 12th century and they continued to be constructed and used throughout the medieval and post-medieval periods. Most surviving examples are likely to be less than three centuries old, and most will have fallen into disuse in the late 19th or early 20th century. Animal pounds are usually located in villages or towns though some lie in more open locations, particularly on the edge of old woodlands and commons. Construction methods vary according to the availability of building materials: stone, brick, fencing, iron railings and earthworks being used to enclose areas ranging from 4m by 6m to over 0.5ha. The walls are normally about 1.5m high, although greater heights are not uncommon as attempts to prevent poundbreach. In addition to stock control, animals were sometimes taken as a `distress' (seizure of property in lieu of debt or to enforce payment) and kept under the care of the pinder or hayward until redeemed. Pounds are usually unroofed and have a single entrance, although some have additional low entrances to allow the passage of sheep and pigs while retaining larger stock. Other features include rudimentary shelters for the pound-keeper, laid floors, drainage channels, troughs and internal partitions to separate the beasts. Animal pounds are widely distributed throughout England, with particular concentrations in the west and Midlands. About 250 examples are known to survive in fair condition, with perhaps another 150 examples recorded either as remains, or from documentary evidence alone. Pounds illustrate a specialised aspect of past social organisation and animal husbandry, and reflect the use and former appearance of the surrounding landscape. The animal pound 620m south west of North Barn survives well and will contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its construction, date, function, agricultural practices, social organisation and overall landscape context.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
PastScape 210345
Wiltshire HER ST92NE609

Source: Historic England

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