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Minor Romano-British villa 300m north west of Tapwell Bridge

A Scheduled Monument in Cromhall, South Gloucestershire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.6051 / 51°36'18"N

Longitude: -2.4552 / 2°27'18"W

OS Eastings: 368571.798145

OS Northings: 189687.745166

OS Grid: ST685896

Mapcode National: GBR JX.B33T

Mapcode Global: VH87Y.DXDC

Entry Name: Minor Romano-British villa 300m north west of Tapwell Bridge

Scheduled Date: 20 August 1979

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1003045

English Heritage Legacy ID: SG 178

County: South Gloucestershire

Civil Parish: Cromhall

Traditional County: Gloucestershire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Gloucestershire

Church of England Parish: Cromhall St Andrew

Church of England Diocese: Gloucester

Details

The monument includes a minor Romano-British villa, situated on the gently-sloping western valley sides of a tributary to the Little Avon River. The villa was excavated by Lord Ducie in 1855 and survives as buried structures and deposits visible as a slight platform in a cultivated field. It is also visible as a series of parch marks which reveal the underlying buildings on aerial photographs taken in 1976. The main dwelling house was of a winged corridor type with several stone-built outbuilding ranges. The field has produced Roman and coarse Romano-British pottery sherds as chance finds over the years. A tessellated pavement was allegedly found here which measured 5.4m long by 4.5m wide although the pavement may alternatively have come from a Romano-British temple to the north (scheduled separately). A trial excavation in 1980 indicated the easternmost room of the northern wing of the villa had been a later addition.

Sources: PastScape 201442
South Gloucestershire HER 1505

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Romano-British villas were extensive rural estates with groups of domestic, agricultural and occasionally industrial buildings at their focus. The term "villa" is now commonly used to describe either the estate or the buildings themselves. The buildings usually include a well-appointed dwelling house, the design of which varies considerably according to the needs, taste and prosperity of the occupier. Most of the houses were partly or wholly stone-built, many with a timber-framed superstructure on masonry footings. Roofs were generally tiled and the house could feature tiled or mosaic floors, under-floor heating, wall plaster, glazed windows and cellars. Many had integral or separate suites of heated baths. The house was usually accompanied by a range of buildings providing accommodation for farm labourers, workshops and storage for agricultural produce. These were arranged around or alongside a courtyard and were surrounded by a complex of paddocks, pens, yards and features such as vegetable plots, granaries, threshing floors, wells and hearths, all approached by tracks leading from the surrounding fields. Villa buildings were constructed throughout the period of Roman occupation, from the first to the fourth centuries AD. They are usually complex structures occupied over several hundred years and continually remodelled to fit changing circumstances. They could serve a wide variety of uses alongside agricultural activities, including administrative, recreational and craft functions, and this is reflected in the considerable diversity in their plan. The least elaborate villas served as simple farmhouses whilst, for the most complex, the term "palace" is not inappropriate. Villa owners tended to be drawn from a limited elite section of Romano-British society. Although some villas belonged to immigrant Roman officials or entrepreneurs, the majority seem to have been in the hands of wealthy natives with a more-or-less Romanised lifestyle, and some were built directly on the sites of Iron Age farmsteads. Roman villa buildings are widespread, with between 400 and 1000 examples recorded nationally. The majority of these are classified as `minor' villas. Minor villas are found throughout lowland Britain and occasionally beyond. Roman villas provide a valuable index of the rate, extent and degree to which native British society became Romanised, as well as indicating the sources of inspiration behind changes of taste and custom. In addition, they serve to illustrate the agrarian and economic history of the Roman province, allowing comparisons over wide areas both within and beyond Britain. Despite early excavation and cultivation the minor Romano-British villa 300m north west of Tapwell Bridge will contain further archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its construction, development, longevity, social, political and economic significance, agricultural practices, trade, industrial activity, domestic arrangements, abandonment and overall landscape context.

Source: Historic England

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