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Colchester Castle and the Temple of Claudius

A Scheduled Monument in Castle, Essex

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Latitude: 51.8914 / 51°53'28"N

Longitude: 0.9038 / 0°54'13"E

OS Eastings: 599908.571037

OS Northings: 225408.354226

OS Grid: TL999254

Mapcode National: GBR SN5.7BX

Mapcode Global: VHKFZ.MQ4G

Entry Name: Colchester Castle and the Temple of Claudius

Scheduled Date: 10 April 1915

Last Amended: 20 December 2017

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1002217

English Heritage Legacy ID: EX 1

County: Essex

Electoral Ward/Division: Castle

Built-Up Area: Colchester

Traditional County: Essex

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Essex

Church of England Parish: Colchester St Botolph with Holy Trinity (LEP)

Church of England Diocese: Chelmsford


A multi-period site encompassing part of a Roman legionary annexe, part of a Roman colony, a classical temple known as the Temple of Claudius, a late Anglo-Saxon or Norman chapel and associated buildings, and a Norman hall-keep castle known as Colchester Castle.

Source: Historic England


A multi-period site encompassing part of a Roman legionary annexe, part of a Roman colony, a classical temple known as the Temple of Claudius, a late Anglo-Saxon or Norman chapel and associated buildings, and a Norman hall-keep castle known as Colchester Castle.


The Roman legionary fortress annexe laid out in AD 44 was located immediately east of the fortress and covered a large area, part of which is beneath Castle Park. A V-shaped ditch and rampart, which served as the defences enclosing the legionary annexe, survives as buried remains just to the east of the north bank of the upper bailey of the medieval castle (TQ9996125429). It marks the north-east corner of the Roman annexe defences, which continue to the west and the south from this point.

The Roman colony (Colonia Victricensis) founded in AD 49 included 46 street blocks or insulae (Gascoyne and Radford 2013: 105). Five of these street blocks survive as buried remains beneath Castle Park, including Roman street and road surfaces, drains, foundations, walls, floors and tessellated pavements. The insulae are typically numbered as part of the wider street grid and the area covered by Castle Park is two street blocks wide. Hence the street blocks beneath it include from north to south: insula 6 and 7, insula 14 and 15, and insula 22 (the Roman temple). There are also partial remains of insula 23 at the south-east corner of the park. The north wall of the colony survives as upstanding remains and is a separate scheduling (List entry No.1003772) that passes east to west across the north boundary of Castle Park. An intervallum road runs inside it and survives below-ground.

At the north-west of Castle Park are the buried remains of insula 6; a rectangular street block extending c128m east-west by c91m north-south. It is delimited by the intervallum road at the north and three streets on the south, east and west. Four houses have been partially excavated fronting onto the street to the south (see Hull 1958 for ground plans, 81-85). Three of these buildings were uncovered in 1920. The trenches were subsequently backfilled and they survive as buried remains beneath the gardens and bandstand, c120m north of the Norman keep (TL9987125466). They include a corridor house and two courtyard houses built in the mid-C2 but with later alterations. The courtyard houses are positioned adjacent to each other, at the south-east corner of the insula. They probably formed a single residence at one time, c46m wide and 70m long. Each house is rectangular in plan with four ranges opening onto corridors surrounding an open courtyard or garden. The walls are built of septaria and tile courses, and the floors are largely tessellated pavements. The remains of a hypocaust survive in the north range of the eastern house. Fragments of painted plaster indicate that the rooms were decorated with wall paintings. The corridor house is separated from these two buildings by an open passage at the west. It is a long rectangular range orientated north-south, c7.5m wide and over 32m long. The building comprises at least seven rooms opening off a west corridor, with a further corridor or open passage to the south running parallel to the street. Most of the rooms have tessellated floors, and three have traces of mosaics with geometrical and guilloche patterns. Immediately to the south are the buried remains of a Roman drain and street that serviced the buildings. The street is a cambered metalled surface, formed of pebble, gravel and tile fragments. It is c7.5m wide with a septaria retaining wall on the north-side. The street continues to the east to form the southern boundary of insula 7. At the south-west corner of insula 6 are the exposed upstanding remains of a house uncovered in 1892 during the laying out of Castle Park. It is over 13m long by 6m wide and includes four rooms with red tessellated pavements divided by modern York stone slabs capping the original walls.

The buried remains of insula 7 survive at the north-east of Castle Park, beneath the area known as Hollytrees Meadow. It is a square block extending c99m east-west by c99m north-south, delimited by roads on each side (Hull 1958, 85-91). A tessellated pavement was recorded within the insula in 1848, although its exact location is uncertain. On the east side, near the boundary of the park, are the remains of a building; two septaria stone walls were recorded in 1927-8. At the south-east of the insula are the buried remains of two further buildings with red tessellated pavements; one possibly forming a corridor running north-south c1.5m wide by 10m long, and another forming a room c4m wide and over 5m long. An arched drain runs beneath a street on the east side of the insula, near the east boundary of Castle Park. The street is a cambered metalled surface, c8.5m wide and up to 0.8m thick.

Immediately south of insula 6 is insula 14 (centre west of Castle Park). It is c134m wide and 36m long (north-south), delimited by a road on each side. The ditch of the medieval upper bailey has encroached upon a large part of it. However, when the steps of a rose garden were built in 1929 several Roman finds were recovered indicating that the Roman levels are partly preserved in this area.

A Roman waterworks, a shrine and several houses, have been recorded through partial excavation within insula 15 beneath the east side of Castle Park (Hull 1958, 106-113). This insula forms a trapezoidal area c94m wide at the north but c88m wide at the south and c100m long. It now covers the southern half of Hollytrees Meadow. The waterworks is situated near the south-east corner (TM0000325376) and is constructed of septaria and tile with opus signinum floors. It is an L-shaped building of at least two phases; originally a rectangular range, c30m long and c8m wide, orientated north-south but with an additional wing, c7m by c5m, built onto the south end of the east wall at a later date. There are six rooms within it. At the centre of the main range is a large sunken room, c12m long by 6m wide, with walls up to 1.8m high and nearly 1m thick, faced internally with tiles. There are several channels in the floor, as well as a sump-hole 1m square and 0.5m deep. A spring rises near the centre of the building. There are slots within it, either for timber partitions or to hold machinery. Partial excavation in 1927-8 recovered iron shackles, indicating that slaves worked on the site. Surrounding the building is a rectangular walled enclosure formed by double walls at the south, east and west, and a single wall at the north. An arched drain extends from the north-east corner of the main sunken room. It takes a sinuous course north-east for c21m, where it meets the north-south road, before continuing 168m north on a straighter course beneath the road, through insula 7, out of the north gateway and into the outer ditch of the Roman colony. It is built of tile upon a blue lias stone base. The drain increases in size along its length and varies from c0.3m-0.6m wide and 0.7m-1.4m high at the outlet near the Roman gateway. Two sections of the drain are partially exposed beneath metal grates within Castle Park.

There are the remains of several other buildings within insula 15. Just to the west of the waterworks are the foundations of a small rectangular building, c7m long and 5m wide, with a porch attached to the west side. It is orientated east-west and may be a shrine. There are also remains of several houses. A tessellated pavement was identified at the north-west corner of the insula in 1852-3 (TL9994225440). Septaria walls and tessellated floors were partially uncovered on the west side of the insula in 1927-8. The largest was c6m long and 2m wide. On the north side workmen excavating a goalpost uncovered a red tessellated pavement around 4m square and a hypocaust c3.5m square.

The Temple of Claudius occupied insula 22 of the Roman colony, and survives as upstanding and buried remains beneath the south-west of Castle Park. It comprises a walled rectangular precinct or temenos within which are located centrally the temple podium and altar. The temple podium survives as upstanding and buried remains that form the base of the Norman keep. The superstructure of the temple no longer survives; its place being occupied by the keep. However the size and position of the podium indicate that it comprised a cella (inner chamber) at the north flanked by columns and a pronaos (colonnaded entrance façade) at the south formed of eight columns (octastyle) supporting a pediment.

The temple podium is a rectangular platform orientated north-south built of ragstone rubble faced with septaria and brick. It is c32m long, 23.5m wide and 4m high. The platform is formed of two types of foundations; solid, load-bearing, stone foundations that originally supported the outer walls and columns, and arched foundations that originally supported the floor. The solid outer foundations are up to c6m thick at the east and west, and c2.5m thick at the north and south. Within these are the arched foundations, formed of four irregular arches separated by cross walls up to 1.8m thick. These arches were originally constructed by smoothing the sandy soil into curves, over which wooden shuttering was placed and then stone and mortar built on top. The wooden shuttering subsequently rotted away but marks remain in the mortar on the underside of the arches. The soil beneath the arches was removed in the C17, thereby forming four arched voids or vaults that survive under the Norman keep. They comprise two long vaults, c18.5m long by c6.5m wide, underlying the position of the cella, and two short vaults, c8.5m long and c6.5m wide, under the pronaos. There are also several later subdivisions and reinforcing walls within the vaults; those built in brick are probably C18 but those in concrete were added in 1931. On the south side of the podium are the foundations of Roman steps that led to the temple entrance.

The altar of the temple survives as buried remains, c18m south of the Norman keep. It is formed of stone foundations c10m square. A vaulted drain 0.5m wide has been recorded c4m north and west of the altar, and probably follows a square course around it. The drain is built of tile and stone and lined with plaster. Two pedestal bases for statues survive north and west of the altar. These may be part of a grouping that originally surrounded it. They are constructed of coursed tile and are c1.5m wide and over 3m long.

The surrounding precinct or temenos survives largely as buried remains. It was originally c164m long and 150m wide, with ranges on the north, east and west sides, formed of open porticos and enclosed rooms. The walls are constructed of dressed septaria and tile with a rubble core. The north range is partly located beneath the north bank of the upper bailey and comprised an inner and outer wall c8m apart. Partial excavation has shown that these walls survive up to 3m high beneath the bailey bank. Between the walls are the remains of partition walls and floor surfaces. There are two exposed sections of the outer wall of the north range upstanding within the park (at TL9981325388). These were uncovered in 1892 during the laying out of a path across the upper bailey and are Grade II listed (List entry No. 1123675). They are built of septaria, capped by modern concrete slabs and septaria, and measure c3m by 1m and c0.5m by 1m. The west range survives partly as buried remains close to the west boundary of Castle Park. Partial excavation has uncovered a vaulted drain that ran underneath a metalled road outside the north-west corner of this range. It is partly exposed within modern railings adjacent to Ryegate Road. The south side of the precinct was formed by a monumental arcade resting on a foundation platform c4.5m wide and 1.6m deep. This is considered to be the largest Roman arcade in Britain. The footings of the arcade survive as buried remains, immediately to the south of Castle Park, some of which are exposed beneath a glass covering within the floor of the apartment block One Castle Park. The arcade was formed of stone piers with half-engaged columns, around 3.5m long by 2m wide, which supported the arches. It has the footings of a monumental entrance arch or gateway at the centre. The west side of the gateway survives to approximately 1.8m above foundation level.

In the C10 the former temple precinct may have been occupied by a villa regalis (royal manor or estate). The ranges of the temple precinct remained upstanding and there is tentative evidence that the south side was in use; partial excavation has recorded late Saxon slots dug between the piers of the arcade. Immediately to the south of the temple podium are the buried remains of a chapel built in the late Anglo-Saxon period or slightly later. It has a concrete floor and foundations for timber-framed walls of plaster infill over wattles. Fragments of wall plaster found in association with the building include part of an interior wall painting of the Virgin and Child. The chapel was subsequently rebuilt in masonry. To the south and west are the buried masonry sills and concrete floors of two or more timber-framed buildings. In about the late C11 or early C12 the chapel was rebuilt a second time. This structure is a single-celled apsidal building c15m long by 7m wide. The walls are 0.8-0.9m thick and constructed of septaria with some Kentish ragstone and Roman tile. In the early C13 the chapel was reconstructed for a third time when a straight wall was built to replace the apse at the east end. The walls survive as low footings immediately to the south of the later keep.

A domestic stone hall was built to the south of the chapel, possibly prior to the construction of the Norman keep. Partial excavation on the southern boundary of Castle Park has recorded the buried remains of a rectangular range orientated north-south. It is c16m long by 6m wide and formed the western end of a block extending eastwards. The walls are built of septaria to c0.9m thick with quoins of Roman tile and survive up to 1.1m high. There are two doorways and a semi-circular fireplace, inserted at a later date, in the west wall.

The Norman keep, built in late 1060s or 1070s, is rectangular in plan with square turrets projecting from three corners and an apse projecting east from the south-east angle. It is 46m by 33.5m wide, with the longer axis running north-south, and c27m high. The building survives to two storeys high. The walls are nearly 4m wide at the base with foundations c7.5m deep. They are constructed of coursed rubble, consisting of septaria, Roman tile and ragstone, with dressings of ashlar (Barnack, Caen and other freestones) and Roman tile. Much of this is reused Roman material. The north, east and west walls abut the Roman temple podium but the south side is placed beyond it. At the base is a plain chamfered string-course of Barnack stone, below which the walls batter outwards into a sloping plinth c5m high. The keep has flat pilaster buttresses that divide the north wall into two bays, the east and west walls into three bays and the apse into five bays. There are two main phases of construction visible between the lower and upper storey. The first phase, of finer construction, is marked by ashlar quoins and the upright joints of a temporary crenellation that can be seen in the east and west walls, and the south-west turret. The second phase is marked by the use of Roman tile quoins. Numerous putlog holes (for medieval scaffolding) can be seen. There are narrow loopholes to the ground and first floor. Large segmental-headed windows, with brick mullions and leaded lights, were inserted into the keep in the mid-C18. There are six in the south wall and several in the apse, north-east turret and south-west turret. The keep is largely spanned by a C20 felt and glass roof but there are shallow-pitched tiled roofs to the south side, apse, south-west turret and north-west turret. The latter were added in the mid-C18 when the keep was mistakenly thought to be a Roman building; ‘Mediterranean style’ tiles were therefore considered to be in-keeping. The conjectured site of a chapel on top of the keep is covered by a timber and glass roof structure added in 1988-9.

A 1930s footbridge (refurbished in 2013-14) now provides access to the main entrance of the keep, which is situated just above the plinth, at the west end of the south side. Beneath the bridge are the low walls of a narrow rectangular forebuilding, entered from the east. This abutted the south wall and projected out in front of the entrance. The walls are nearly 1.5m wide and built of septaria with tile quoins. The entrance was further strengthened in the C13 when the forebuilding was incorporated within a larger barbican, low walls of which also survive. These abut the western half of the south side of the keep, projecting about 15m from the main doorway. The barbican is entered between D-shaped turrets at the south. The walls are 1.5m wide and constructed of courses of septaria and tile. There are several loopholes in each side. Internally the building is divided into two compartments by a wall with a doorway at its north end.

The main doorway into the keep is through a round-headed arch of three moulded orders, above which is a hoodmould enriched by a double semi-circular motif. It rests on imposts supported by two orders of columns of which only the capitals and one base survive; the inner order have cushion capitals and the outer order have capitals decorated with volutes and leaves. Behind the arch are slots for a portcullis. The ground floor of the keep comprises three small rooms at the south, divided by thick walls, and two large rooms or halls at the north. There are no fireplaces or garderobes on this floor and only the embrasures for loopholes in the walls, although a few have been widened in the C18 to form segmental-headed windows. The south doorway leads through to a small vestibule, which contains a small alcove probably for a guard. This is the first of the three rooms at the south of the keep. On the left is a round-headed doorway leading to the Great Stair in the south-west turret; a stone spiral staircase nearly 5m wide with a rising tunnel vault. It is one of the largest Norman staircases in England. On the right, sub-divided off by a mid-C18 arcade, is the castle well, which is about 15m deep. It was damaged in the 1680s and restored in brick in 1787. Next to the well is a staircase leading to the ‘vaults’ or Roman temple foundations under the keep (see the temple description above). Further east are two small chambers entered from the north; a rectangular barrel-vaulted room known as the ‘Lucas Vault’ and a crypt within the apse. The latter was sub-divided with wooden-boarded partitions to form prisons cells in 1727. These have iron grills, studded and boarded doors and wooden floors. It is covered by two vaults; a cross-vault at the west end and a barrel vault with an apsidal half-domed end at the east. The space immediately outside the prison cells includes several timber posts with arched braces supporting the floor above; these were possibly added when a museum exhibit was inserted into the building in the 1930s. To the north, occupying the rest of the ground floor, are two large rooms; a wide western space and a narrow eastern one. These contain several late C20 and early C21 partition walls and floors for museum services, meeting rooms, offices and toilets, as well as numerous museum display cases, a lift, and modern staircases to the first floor. The western space was originally subdivided by a longitudinal wall or arcade but only traces of it remain. The north-west and north-east turrets are solid at this level.

On the first floor the space was originally divided in a similar way to the ground floor. It is provided with fireplaces, latrines, and a greater number of embrasures for loopholes, indicating that it was a principal residential floor. Beam slots in the walls indicate the position of the original timber floor. There were originally two large rooms at the north; a wide western space (c29m by 18m) that may have been the Great Hall and a narrow eastern one (c28m by 6m) that may have served as apartments, or, more specifically, a bed chamber and audience chamber. However there is now a C20 gallery occupying the Great Hall at this level containing museum displays. An aisle may have run along the east side of the Great Hall; the possible scar of an arcade is visible in the north wall. There are four large fireplaces; two each in the east and west walls, set in line with the buttresses on the exterior, with rounded arches and double flues. In the north-west turret are two garderobes, one of which is blocked, and a spiral staircase. Next to it, in the north wall, is a blocked round-headed doorway that provided a postern (secondary entrance) directly into the Great Hall of the keep. It opens out onto a landing, which was originally accessed via a flight of timber steps. The north-east turret contains a barrel-vaulted room. Next to it is the narrow eastern space that probably served as apartments, separated off from the Great Hall by a partition wall of herringbone brickwork. These were serviced by a garderobe with a small barrel-vaulted lobby set into the thickness of the east wall of the keep. Within the apsidal south-east angle is a chapel or, less likely, a sub-chapel; a low vaulted room with two pairs of apsidal side chambers covered by groined cross vaults. It is lit by two loopholes and three large windows inserted in 1754-5; two in the south wall and one at the east. There appear to have been two original entrances at the north-west but a further entrance has since been inserted into the north wall. Immediately west of the chapel is a library, added in 1754-5 for Charles Gray, which now serves as a museum learning space; ‘The Charles Gray Room’. This may originally have been the location of an antechamber. It is lit by two large windows either side of an (ex-situ) late C15 or early C16 fireplace with an elaborately carved early C17 overmantel. On the north side of the library is an arcaded passage of brick and stone. The south-west turret contains a small barrel-vaulted chamber in addition to the Great Stair at this level.

At the top of the keep are further built remains. A short stretch of the west wall next to the north-west tower survives to approximately 3m higher than the rest of the wall and may indicate the original height of the battlements. At the south-east corner the apsidal wall survives to nearly 2m high and has four inner pilasters in line with those on the exterior. It has been suggested that there was a chapel in this location but this has recently been disputed (Berridge 2016: 61); a 1988-89 timber and glass roof structure is placed in the former conjectured position of the chapel. A chamber is built within the thickness of the buttress of the south wall and, although previously thought to be part of the chapel, may instead be part of an enlarged corner tower. Further west there are the remains of an inner wall for a south passage that probably formed a walkway between the original roof edge and outer wall. There are two mid-C18 additions at this level; a 1760 extension of the south-west turret covered by a brick dome with a tile roof and a 1746 extension of the north-east turret covered by a pyramidal tiled roof. The latter formed a study. The traces of a passage along the west and north walls of the keep are considered to have been a walkway constructed under Charles Gray in the C18, providing a protected route to the study.

The Norman keep was set in the middle of an upper bailey with a lower (or ‘nether’) bailey covering the ground between the upper bailey and the town wall to the north. The defences of the upper bailey comprised a substantial bank and ditch, originally topped by a palisade. The northern and eastern arms of the defences survive as landscaped earthworks within Castle Park. The bank is about 4m high and 28.5m wide. South of the castle the bailey earthworks have been levelled but survive as buried remains. Partial excavation indicates that the ditch is about 22m wide and over 5m deep. The High Street appears to have been diverted to skirt the outer edge of it. Immediately to the north of the upper bailey are the earthworks and buried remains of the lower bailey, which was also enclosed by a bank and ditch. The southern end of the eastern arm of the defences are visible as a landscaped ditch, whilst the western arm is marked by a slight rise near the course of Ryegate Road. Partial excavation has recorded the denuded remains of the eastern defences surviving below-ground. The bank is c5.5m wide and just over 0.5m high whilst the ditch is c10m wide and 1m deep.

The scheduling excludes all memorial stones, the Park Café, the park lodge and Ranger’s Station, the Grade II-listed bandstand, Grade II-listed summer house, Grade II-listed classical archway of 1747, the late-C20 beacon, all modern buildings, sheds and pavilions, the green house, the children’s playground equipment, the surfaces of all modern roads and pathways, the tarmacadam surfaces of all car parks, cycle stands, the boundary walls and railings of Castle Park, the concrete footbridge to the keep, all modern garden furniture and fountains, all flagpoles, telephone boxes, flood lights, benches and tables, litter bins, bollards, lamp posts, noticeboards, signs and sign posts, fences and fence posts, gates and gate posts. However the ground beneath all these features is included. The lift, modern doors, modern museum displays and fittings, electric lighting and water pipes in the keep are also excluded. The Grade II-listed Hollytrees Museum (but not the adjoining public toilets) has a basement and is completely excluded. The north wall of the Roman colony forms the south boundary of Castle Park and is a separate scheduling (List entry No. 1003772). Immediately south of Castle Park, the car park and buildings known as: Nos 1-17, The View; One Castle Park; Nos 6, 8, 10-12 Museum Street, Nos 93-96 High Street; and The Castle public house are excluded but the ground beneath them is included.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

Colchester Castle and the Temple of Claudius, a multi-period site that encompasses part of a Roman legionary fortress annexe, part of a Roman colony, a classical temple, a late Anglo-Saxon or Norman chapel and associated buildings, and a Norman hall-keep castle, is scheduled for the following principal reasons:
* Rarity: as the rare remains of a classical temple and a Norman hall-keep castle;
* Historic interest: the site of the first Roman legionary fortress, earliest colony and first provincial capital. The Temple of Claudius served as the centre of the Roman imperial cult in Britain and a primary target of the Boudiccan revolt (AD 60-61). It was occupied in the Anglo-Saxon period and then provided the foundation for a Norman hall-keep castle, which served as a physical manifestation of the wealth and power of England’s new king, William the Conqueror;
* Architectural interest: The Temple of Claudius is the largest classical temple in Britain, upon which was built the largest Norman keep in existence; a royal castle at the forefront of medieval military architecture;
* Survival: Roman, Anglo-Saxon and medieval archaeological remains survive to over 3m deep beneath Castle Park, including well preserved charred organic remains relating to the sacking of Colchester during the Boudiccan revolt. Most of the Norman hall-keep remains upstanding, including considerable architectural detail of the entrance, chapel, corner turrets and outer walls;
* Diversity: the multi-period remains demonstrate occupation of the site from the Roman period onwards and will enhance our understanding of Colchester, a major urban centre for nearly 2000 years;
* Potential: a large proportion of the site still remains unexcavated and there is a high degree of potential for further investigation, which will provide a particular insight into the relationship between the Romans and the native population, as well as the manner in which the legionary fortress was converted into a Roman colony;
* Documentation: the site is well documented in both historical and archaeological terms, including references to the Roman temple in Tacitus’ Annals and the Norman hall-keep in the medieval Colchester Chronicles;
* Group value: with the designated sites of late Iron-Age Camulodunon; the Roman city walls and gateways; Roman circus; the Anglo-Saxon Holy Trinity Church, and the many listed medieval buildings in Colchester, as well as the registered C19 park, Castle Park. Altogether these form an impressive and valuable ensemble that well illustrates the development of Colchester.

Source: Historic England


Books and journals
Bettley, James, Pevsner, Nikolaus, The Buildings of England: Essex, (2007), 254-277
Clarke, D, Colchester Castle: A history, description and guide, (1980)
Crummy, P, City of Victory: The story of Colchester, (1997)
Gascoyne, A, Radford, D, Colchester: Fortress of the War God, An Archaeological Assessment, (2013)
Hull, M, Roman Colchester, Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London No.20, (1958)
RCHME, , An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex: Volume 3, (1922), 20-27 and 50-55
Berridge, P, 'Colchester Castle: 'Some tyme stronge and statelye, as the ruynes do shewe'' in Davies, J, Riley, A, Levesque, J, Lapiche, C, Lapiche, C, Castles and the Anglo-Saxon World, (2016), 55-68
Crummy, P, 'Colchester: the Roman Fortress and the development of the Colonia' in Britannia, , Vol. 8, (1977), 65-105
Crummy, P, 'The Temples of Roman Colchester' in British Archaeological Reports, , Vol. 77, (1980), 243-248
Wheeler, R, Laver, P, 'Roman Colchester' in The Journal of Roman Studies, , Vol. 9, (1919), 139-169
Crummy, P, 'Aspects of Anglo-Saxon and Norman Colchester' in Colchester Archaeological Report, , Vol. 1, (1981), .
Crummy, P, 'The Castle that Eudo built' in Colchester Archaeologist, , Vol. 7, (1992), 1-7
Marshall, P, 'The internal arrangement of the donjon at Colchester in Essex: a reconsideration' in The Castle Studies Group Journal, , Vol. 23, (2009-10), 179-190
Hebditch, M, 'Excavations on the South Side of the Temple Precinct at Colchester, 1964' in Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, , Vol. 3, (1971), 115-130
Cotton, M, ''The Norman Bank of Colchester Castle' in The Antiquaries Journal, , Vol. 42, (1962), 57-61
Drury, P, 'The Temple of Claudius at Colchester Reconsidered' in Britannia, , Vol. 15, (1984), 7-50
Drury, P, 'Aspects of the Origins and Development of Colchester Castle' in The Archaeological Journal, , Vol. 139:1, (1982), 302-419
Shimmin, D, Colchester Archaeological Trust Report 701: An archaeological evaluation at 97 High Street, Colchester, June 2012 (2013)

Source: Historic England

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