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Sections of two deer park pales and a deer park pond at Killerton Park

A Scheduled Monument in Broad Clyst, Devon

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.7974 / 50°47'50"N

Longitude: -3.4615 / 3°27'41"W

OS Eastings: 297096.988173

OS Northings: 100776.749595

OS Grid: SS970007

Mapcode National: GBR LK.Z0WX

Mapcode Global: FRA 36MZ.R7S

Entry Name: Sections of two deer park pales and a deer park pond at Killerton Park

Scheduled Date: 25 November 1999

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1017193

English Heritage Legacy ID: 29691

County: Devon

Civil Parish: Broad Clyst

Traditional County: Devon

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Devon

Church of England Parish: Broadclyst St John the Baptist

Church of England Diocese: Exeter

Summary

Two deer park pales and watering pond, probably post-medieval in origin, but dating principally from the C18 onwards.

Source: Historic England

Details

PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS
The monument, which falls into two separate areas of protection, includes two lengths of deer park pale, one (west) dating from the C18 or earlier, whilst the other (east) is late C18/early C19 and was upgraded in the later C19. Both sections represent part of the surviving pales of a former deer park lying within the grounds of Killerton Park (Registered Grade II*). The eastern park pale has a contemporary, purpose-built watering pond at its northern end.

DESCRIPTION
The western park pale, is some 923m long and extends southwards from the River Culm following the lower western slopes of Dolbury Hill to the Bear’s Hut in Killerton Gardens to the north-west of Killerton House. It is a substantial structure, comprising a bank between 1-2m high, formed of densely-packed earth, with a drystone revetment wall of coursed local stone on its eastern side; the latter possibly added at a later date. The park pale also has a wide, flat-bottomed ditch and an opposing earthwork bank which varies in width between 3m and 5m; forming a barrier with a maximum width of 13.5m. A single narrow gap in the pale leading into Columbjohn Wood is probably original, but other occasional gaps in the bank are considered to be relatively modern. A short section of about 30m in Park Wood is no longer upstanding, having been replaced by a cottage garden wall in the later C19.

The eastern park pale, which appears to have been constructed in the late C18/early C19 at which time the entire deer park was shifted eastwards, is approximately 1160m in length, running south from the floodplain of the River Culm to the northern slopes of the Dolbury Hillfort. It comprises a curving bank of relatively loose soil with a drystone revetment wall on its east side, built using the same local stone as the western park pale. Parallel to the park pale bank is a shallow ditch, some 5m wide, and an opposing earthwork bank. The northern section of the pale differs in its construction and form to that found to the south and may represent a different phase of construction, an extension of the park pale, or be a substantial, later repair. This section of the revetment wall consists of more roughly-shaped and loosely-coursed stone which is laid horizontally rather than vertically. The gateways through the bank are considered to be relatively modern. Towards its northern section, the eastern park pale appears to cross a short length of bank which may represent the truncated remains of an earlier park pale. At the northern end of the eastern pale is a watering pond which, although partially infilled, is visible as a shallow depression that seasonally contains water. It measures approximately 37m east-west by 16m north-south. A leat that supplied water from the river to the pond has been infilled and is not included in the scheduling. Some sections of the deer park boundary were defined by wooden paling or metal fencing; the former depicted in contemporary illustrations; yet although they do not survive; their former presence is marked in some places by slight linear depressions or ditches. However, these features are not considered to be of national importance and are not included in the scheduling.

EXCLUSIONS
All fencing and gates, cattle grids and modern timber bridges and steps are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

Source: Historic England

Reasons for Scheduling

The two deer park pales and associated watering pond at Killerton Park, which date from the C18 or earlier, are scheduled for the following principal reasons:

Survival:
* The sections of park pale survive well and will allow a valuable and very complete insight into the domestic economy and pursuits of the occupants of this private estate.
Potential:
* The earthworks will retain archaeological material relating their construction and more generally on the use of later post-medieval deer parks at a period when they were becoming less fashionable across the country as a whole.
Documentation:
* The history and evolution of the deer park is well documented both historically and archaeologically which enhances our understanding and significance of Killerton’s deer park.
Group value:
* With the scheduled monument Dolbury Hillfort, the Grade II* listed Killerton House and the Grade II* registered park and garden, as well as a number of other listed buildings which together illustrate well the historical development of Killerton.

Source: Historic England

Sources

Other
Devon & Dartmoor Historic Environment Record, MDV60411, Deer Park Pale at Killerton
Hegarty, C, Knight, S and Sims, R, 2014-2015, East and Mid Devon River Catchments, National Mapping Programme Project
LUC, November 2012, Killerton Park Parkland Plan
South West Archaeology, February 2016, The Deer Park, Killerton, Broadclyst, Devon. Results of a Desk-Based Assessment & Walkover Survey, Report No.160212
South West Archaeology, February 2016, The Deer Park, Killerton, Broadclyst, Devon. Results of Archaeological Monitoring, Report Nos.160621 and 160203

Source: Historic England

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